There are over 300 subspecies of chili, each bearing fruit of different sizes, shapes, color, flavor and degree of hotness. They are all descendants of the same chilies discovered in the Americas by Spanish explorers in the 15th century. Chili powder is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili peppers. Chili powder is used as an essential spice to add piquancy and flavor to dishes in many different cuisines including Tex-Mex, Indian, Chinese, Thai, and Korean and is also widely used to make hot sauces. The spiciness of chili peppers is measured in Scoville heat units (SHU); from zero to pure capsaicin 16,000,000 SHU. The highest concentration of capsaicin is in the inner layer of the chili pepper; the wall surrounding the seeds.